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კ.მარჯანიშვილი - ეპოქისათვის გაღებული ხარკი (ნაწილი 2)

da marTlac, kldiaSvilis gmirebi garkveul ekranul transformacias ganicdian. kldiaSviliseuli bekina rainduli keTilSobilebis tragikomikur saburvelSia gaxveuli. iseve, rogorc yvela aznauri, "erTob gadapranWuli iyo Cveni bekinao...” _ ambobs mwerali. bekina angariSs ar uwevs sakuTar survilebs. daqvrivebuli moxuci mxned grZnobs Tavs " _ bekinam marjvena xeliT Seibertya Tavisi grZeli gaWaRaravebuli wveri da mere TavmowonebiT gadaigrixa lamazi ulvaSebi”.

lukmis gamyofis SeZenis perspeqtiviT SeZrwunebuli platoni ornaqmarevi, uSvilo dedabris ideas mamas gaandobs, bekina ar ikargeba da ecineba kidec, sakuTari vaJiSvilis "fafxurze”. "_ i, wyeulma mec, rom gamayolos winandels, ras mipireb maSin? a? xa, xa, xa! avi sandobia magisTana mTvareze dabadebuli dedakaci!” elenesTan qorwinebis Semdeg, bekinasaTvis sikvdili marTlac sanatreli gaxda. moxuci javrisagan aRar iyo da Svils Sewyalebas Txovda, sadRac gaqra misi ampartavneba da Tavmowoneba, amisTvis aRar ecala bekinas!

Tu, kldiaSvilis bekinas wodebrivi niSnebi, missive adamianurobis, humanuri xasiaTis Taviseburi niRabia, marjaniSvilis bekina kudabzika, gafxorili, TviTkmayofili da Tavneba gmiria, romlisTvisac ucxoa
”sakuTari Secdomis” Secnobis gza.

bekinas gmiri sul ramdenime epizodSi Cndeba. filmis dasawyisSi, rodesac mayureblis winaSe Savi wver-ulvaSiT, sqeli Savi warbebiT, Sav tanisamosSi gamowyobili warsdgeba. mas Tavisuflad SeuZlia yanwis gamocla, yanwidan larnakze gadasvla, Semdeg ki Tvalebis brialic. k.marjaniSvili da m.Wiaureli ar iSureben saRebavebs, raTa berikacis saxes meti karikatuloba SesZinon. am mizans emsaxureba personaJis kostiumebic. "reJisori gmiris ubadrukobas xazs usvams daudevari CacmulobiT – aRniSnavs Teatrmcodne e.guguSvili _ (misi tansacmeli sacvlebs hgavs, vidre aznauris Coxas) da mTeli misi garegnobiT”. Tavmomwone bekinas sarkeSi pranWva-grexva ufro metad aSarJebs gmiris xasiaTs, sasacilos xdis mis survilebsac da asakis miuxedavad, sapatarZlos mosawoneblad gamarTul speqtakls!

sicilis mZafr obieqts sapatarZlo warmoadgens. marjaniSvilis elene, kldiaSvilis saTno sadedinacvlosagan gansxvavebiT momavali, SesaZlo qorwinebis ideiT moxibluli da atacebuli dedaberia, ferumariliT fermosuli da Cakuratebuli. aristo pativiT warudgens elenes platons. sapatarZlo morcxvad Camoisworebs kabas, adgils ver poulobs, cmukavs. platoni nel-nela miuCoCdeba momaval "dedas”. elene ki uxerxulobisagan wamoxteba da nardis mosatanad gaiqceva. msaxiobi (n.javaxiSvili) ar iSurebs grimasebs sakuTari simorcxvis xazgasasmelad da miT ufro sasacilo xdeba. mamakacebi oTaxSi TaTbiroben, karebTan ki cnobismoyvare elene aris miyuradebuli, romlis Tvalebis sicqafe da grimi i.WavWavaZis lamaziseulTan ("kacia adamiani?!”) ufro aaxlovebs, vidre kldiaSvilis personaJTan.

ramdenadac anegdoturia Tavad mwerliseuli ambavi, miT ufro seriozulebi arian misi gmirebi. SeuZlebelia kldiaSvilis eleneze damcinavi sicili, magram filmis avtorebisaTvis is sasaciloa, vinaidan misi gaTxovebis survili Seusabamoa mis asakTan, amitomac Zlivs gadmoagoreben fanjridan sapatarZlos, pirSi WinWs CasCrian mwerlis saTno elenes, xolo axal ojaxSi misvlisas cxenis unagiridanac gadmoagdeben.

es iyo platonis, Taviseburad mSvidi cxovrebis rRvevis dasawyisi. misi pirveli uSedego gabrZoleba karze momdgar ubedurebasTan, magram platoni, mainc ar kargavs imeds. igi agrZelebs brZolas Tavisi kmayofilebis "susti safuZvelis” SenarCunebisaTvis da moTxrobis Semdegi ganviTareba, gviCvenebs rogor marcxdeba platoni, rogor ucruvdeba mas yvela imedi da angariSi. sinamdvile, yvelaferSi da yovelTvis ewinaaRmdegeba platonis ganzraxvebsa da molodins. aseTia, kldiaSvilis ganwiruli adamianis, ganwiruli wodebis uiRblo Svilis bedi.

sacnauria, rom marjaniSvilisTvis, romlis kinematografiuli praqtika samaniSvilamde, mxolod erTi filmiT ("qariSxlis win”) SemoisazRvreba, ucxo ar aRmoCnda munji kinosaTvis damaxasiaTebeli metaforuloba. reJisori am xerxs mimarTavs filmis pirvelive epizodSi, rodesac platoni mamis ganzraxvas igebs. Cafiqrebuli verc ki SeniSnavs, rogor miepareba xorcs kata, ZaRli ki bavSvebisaTvis gamiznul rZis ulufas Seeqceva madianad. rogorc kinomcodne n.amirejibi SeniSnavs: "maxvilgonivruli detalebis qvekadrSi ojaxis gapartaxebis idea ikiTxeba”.[x] marjaniSvili iyenebs detals, romelic mosalodneli ubedurebebis mxolod dasawyisia, ris obieqtur Sedegadac reJisoris erT-erTi saukeTeso mignebis – mJave kitris detali gvevlineba (rodesac dedinacvali samzareuloSi Seipareba da Cumad Seeqceva mJave kitrs, rac mis fexmZimobaze migviTiTebs). unda aRiniSnos, rom filmSi axlo xeds, gansakuTrebiT, detals mniSvnelovani adgili uWiravs, Tumca xSirad, is ufro metad dramaturgiul funqcias moklebuli da TviTmiznurad gamoyenebis STabeWdilebas tovebs. amgvaria, filmis dasawyisi kadrebi. kamera SeumCnevels ar tovebs samaniSvilis kar-midamos arcerT kuTxe-kunWuls. reJisori soflis cxovrebis yoveldRiur yofaze amaxvilebs Tavis yuradRebas. ekranze Cndeba RobeSi Tavgakvetebuli Rori, qafiani xelebis axlo xedi, ZaRlisa da Roris Cxubi, mwvanilebis xelidan xelSi gadacemis axlo xedi, kata, ZaRli da sxva.

bunebrivia, rom nebismieri literaturuli nawarmoebi garkveul saxecvlas ganicdis ekranizaciis dros. am TvalsazrisiT, zogjer SesaZlebelia garkveuli epizodebis "amogdeba” da es xerxi gamarTlebulia, Tu is nawarmoebis ideuri Sinaarsis, misi poetikis rRvevas ar ganapirobebs. igive iTqmis, im axali kinoepizodebis Seqmnaze, romelic pirvelwyaroSi ar arsebobs, Tumca amgvari damateba araTu ewinaaRmdegeba, aramed piriqiT, xels unda uwyobdes reJisoris Canafiqris ekranul xorcSesxmas. amgvar gandgomebs marjaniSvilis filmSic vxvdebiT, iseve rogorc garkveuli scenebis damatebebs, rac albaT, dramaturgis kalams unda ekuTvnodes (Tumca, scenaris ar arsebobis gamo dabejiTebiT mtkiceba rTulia).

sainteresoa (da araerTxel gasmula xazi Cveni kinomcodneebis mier), sadedinacvlos motacebis scena, romelzec literaturul pirvelwyaroSi, mxolod miniSnebaa gakeTebuli da miT ufro mZafrdeba aRniSnuli epizodi, rodesac filmis avtorebi motacebis wina epizodad platonTan gaSlili sufris lxinis Sedegad Segulianebul, SezarxoSebul gmirebs sadedinacvlos ezoSi partizanuli Casafrebis taqtikas gaaTamaSebineben da am gaSarJebuli situaciis Semdeg iwyeba sapatarZlos virtuozuli motacebis scena.

xanSiSesuli elene, gogonasaTvis damfrTxali da amave dros, acetebuli, "yofili” rZlis mier irTveba da ikazmeba. gaxazirebuli sadedinacvlo erTob mouxerxebelia, aRelvebisagan gobSi fexs Caartyams, Semdgom ki fanjridanac erTob uxerxulad gadaabrZaneben. mas aklia tradiciulad, mosatacebeli sapatarZloebis simsubuqe, amitomac zurgze mokidebuls Zlivs miaTreven. aseve didi Zalisxmevis Sedegad gadakideben cxenis unagirs, xolo daniSnulebis adgilze miyvanisas sadedinacvlos, saerTod cxenidan miwas daanarcxeben.

paralelurad TamaSdeba bekinas sizmris epizodi: xocva-Jleta, bekina wuxs, mTvralia, platons bekinas xmliT Tavi waecleba. Uusiamovno sizmridan gamoRviZebuls ki, ukve patarZali daxvdeba saxlSi. sizmarSi erTmniSvnelovnad ikiTxeba, mamis xeliT sakuTari Svilis ganadgurebis mosalodneli saSiSroeba, vinaidan memkvidris gaCena, ara axali sicocxlis dasawyisi, aramed platonis cxovrebis dasasrulia. paraleluri moqmedebis principi am filmSi manamdec TamaSdeba, rodesac reJisori cdilobs kiriles wregadasuli siTavxede da platonis morideba erTmaneTs daupirispiros: kirile RviniT savse Wiqas awvdis platons. axlo xediT naCvenebia, Tu rogor dakravs platoni xels Wiqas da gadaagdebs. Semdeg ki gamwarebuli Tavis cxens moaxteba da gaaWenebs. reJisori paralelurad _ kiriles gviCvenebs, romelic nakleb aris dadardianebuli colis Zmis saqcieliT da magidaze cekva-TamaSi gaumarTavs.

filmSi "samaniSvilis dedinacvali” naTelia reJisori da mxatva ri mier saguldagulod amuSaveben interierebs. k.marjaniSvili gansakuTrebul yuradRebas uTmobs kadris kompozicias, arcerTi gmiri, Tundac sagani, SemTxveviT mdebareobas ar ikavebs, aramed winaswar gansazRvrul monaxazze lagdeba. udaoa, rom Teatris reJisors scenuri gamocdileba exmareba kinematografiuli scenebis agebaSi.

natura da interieri ramodenimejer enacvleba erTi-meores, samaniSvilebis karmidamos miminaSvilebis moCuqurTmebuli aivani, saxlis ezoSi, mrgval magidaze gaSlili sufris kadrebi cvlis. bregaZeebis interieri kedelze moyvavilebuli SpaleriT”, rikulebian maRal fexebze Semdgari Txeli magidiT, noxgadafarebuli divaniT, ufro metad modernizebul imerul odas mogagonebT Tavisi sikopwiaviT, vidre kldiaSvilis bregaZeebis gapartaxebul kar-midamos. ucnauria, rom filmSi qalaquri yofisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli scenebic TamaSdeba: mdinaris piras axalgazrda gogoebs mouyriaT Tavi, vaWrobaa gamarTuli. paralelurad qeifi, Tavisi mearRneebiTa da yaraCoRelebis TanxlebiT, qalaquri duqnis fonze. es epizodi, imdenad gamoirCeva soflis yoveldRiuri yofis amsaxveli garemosagan, rom erTgvari disonansic ki Seaqvs filmSi.

epizodidan _ epizodSi qmedebis ritmi izrdeba da kulminacias motacebis scenaSi aRwevs. marjaniSvili iyenebs montaJs, rogorc ara mxolod teqnikur saSualebas, aramed rogorc filmis dramaturgiuli xerxebiT xorcSesxmis aucilebel pirobas. am amocanebsve ukavSirebs mTel aqtiorul ansambls. TiToeuli scena gadaRebamde damuSavebulis STabeWdilebas tovebs, rogorc Cans reJisorisaTvis mniSvnelovani faqtia msaxiobebTan winaswari repeticiebi, risi praqtikac qarTul kinematografSi manamade TiTqmis ar arsebobda.

"me ar vapireb masSi individualobis Cakvlas _ wers marjaniSvili _ Cemi saqmea gamovavlino idea, gavuadvilo gageba, aRvanTo, STavagono msaxiobi, saerTo simfoniur akordSi gavaerTiano individualuri ganwyobilebebi, me movale var Secdomisagan vixsna msaxiobi, magram wminda cecxlis xelyofis ufleba ar maqvs. mxolod, am cecxlSi izrdeba idea, mTeli Tavisi mSvenierebiT”.

reJisori ar iziarebs kldiaSvilis liberalur humanizms da films mZafr JReradobas aniWebs. moTxrobis tragikomikuri intonaciebi ikargeba. Tu, kldiaSvilis moTxrobis gmirebi TandaTan dramis gmirebad iqcevian, filmSi amgvari transformacia ar xdeba, vinaidan avtorebi gmirTa xasiaTis Seqmnisas ufro metad im klasis socialur niSnebs amZafrebdnen, romelsac kldiaSvilis gmirebi ganekuTvnebian. amasTan, kinematografis "simunje” nakleb SesaZleblobas iZleoda kldiaSvilis nawarmoebis ekranizebisaTvis. vinaidan, is im mweralTa ricxvs ganekuTvneba, visTvisac pirveli sityvaa. d.kldiaSvili xom dialogis didi ostatia. es aris mwerlis mTavari xerxi personaJis daxasiaTebisaTvis. TxrobiTi elementi minimumamdea Semcirebuli da adgils uTmobs dialogs, moqmedebas, portrets, yofiT Tu fsiqologiur detalebs.

ak.wereTeli werda; "”d.kldiaSvils daWerili aqvs imereli aznauris saubris yoveli niuansi, winadadebis mimoxra, Taviseburi gamoTqmebi, akviatebuli sityvebi da xSirad mniSvnelobas moklebuli bgerebic ki. sakmarisia, misma personaJebma xma amoiRon, raTa yovelgvari sazRvari waiSalos sinamdvilesa da xelovnebas Soris _ imdenad cocxalni da damajerebelni arian isini”.[xii]

SeuZlebelia kldiaSvilis ekranuli gmirebi "imerlobis” gareSe, SeuZlebelia misi cremlnarevi sicilis "utyv” gamosaxulebad qceva. SesaZloa, amitomac axdens didi reJisori aqcentebis gadanacvlebas da amasTan, cdilobs profesional msaxiobebTan erTad dromoWmuli, aznaurebis saxasiaTo portretebis galerea Seqmnas. TavisTavad, "samaniSvilis dedinacvalis” munji ekranisaTvis SerCeva ukve gulisxmobda reJisoris Tamam nabijs. kinematografi naklebad Tu iyo gaTamamebuli yvelasaTvis nacnobi da sayvareli gmirebis ekranuli saxeebiT. amasTan, es iyo eqsperimentebis epoqa, kinematografis TviTgamorkvevisa da Ziebis didi gzis dasawyisi. Teatris didi reJisorisaTvis kinematografi erTgvar laboratoriad gadaiqca, saidanac miRebul gamocdilebas SemdgomSi Teatralur scenaze gamoiyenebs (1928 wlidan k.marjaniSvili ubrundeba Teatrs kinematografSi moRvaweobis Sedegad aTvisebul mxatvrul xerxebs Teatralur dadgmebSi iyenebs - e.toleris "hopla, Cven vcocxlobT!”, k.kalaZis "rogor”).

"samaniSvilis dedinacvali” aRmoCnda nawarmoebi, romelSic yvelaze mkafiod gamoCnda kinematografze, erTi mxriv reformatuli Teatris, xolo meore mxriv erovnuli literaturis gavlena”. – aRniSnavs k.wereTeli, _ "rolebis aseTi dawvrilebiTi damuSaveba, xasiaTebze profesiuli muSaoba "rogorc samaniSvilis dedinacvalSia” im drois qarTuli kinosaTvis siaxle iyo. mTavari aqcenti msaxiobzea, amitomac swored am filmis Semdeg daiwyo Camoyalibeba kinomsaxiobis skolam, romelSic marjaniSvilis bevri moswavle Sedioda”.[xiii]

"samaniSvilis dedinacvals” _ films, ara mxolod qarTuli kinos istoriaSi, aramed up.yovlisa, Tavad k.marjaniSvilis kinematografiul SemoqmedebaSi erT-erTi mniSvnelovani adgili uWiravs. qarTuli kino viTardeba mZlavri "gawiTlebis” pirobebSi, mas ar gaaCnda imdenad mdidari kinematografiuli tradicia, rogoric qarTul Teatrsa Tu literaturas, musikasa Tu ferweras. kinematografis gadasarCenad, erovnuli TviTmyofadobis moZiebisa da damkvidrebisaTvis, mas, uciloblad mxarSi unda amosdgomoda qarTuli Teatri da qarTuli klasikuri literatura. k.marjaniSvilis kinematografiuli moRvaweoba, swored am saWiroebis erTgvari gamoxatuleba iyo, filmis ZiriTadi nakli ki didi reJisoris mier epoqisaTvis gaRebuli xarki.

qarTul kinoSi imedgacruebuli maWanklis platonis savalalo Tavgadasavals kvlav eziareba mayurebeli xuTi aTeuli wlis Semdeg. manamde ki iyo "Semodgomis aznaurebis”, "dakarguli samoTxe”.

erovnuli kinematografis TviTmyofadoba, umTavresad, swored imiT ganisazRvreba, Tu ramdenad uaxlovdeba is, Tavisi eris xasiaTs, esTetikuri bunebis, arsisa da suliskveTebis gamoxatvasa da warmoCenas. aqedan gamomdinare, garkveul periodSi kinematografs, an ki, saerTod, mTel mis istorias gamWol xazad gasdevs im literaturuli masalis ekranuli asaxvis moTxovnileba, romelSic yvelaze metad ixateba Tavad eris movlenebisadmi damokidebulebis ZiriTadi Taviseburebebi. amitomac, klasikur masalaze interesis SeCereba siTamamiT da, amasTanave, erTgvari sifrTxiliT unda xasiaTdebodes, vinaidan qveynis istoria, Cvens mexsierebaSi dakavSirebulia, ara mxolod istoriul movlenebTan da istoriul pirovnebebTan, aramed im literaturul gmirebTan, romelTa saxelebi ibeWdeba gonebaSi da saxeebi ki konkretul istoriul dros ar Sordeba. am TvalsazrisiT, kldiaSvilis gmirebis savali gzis gakvalvas qarTulma Teatrma xangrZlivi da Sromatevadi dro moandoma, vinaidan klasikis inscenirebisa, Tu ekranizebisas erTgvari saSiSroebac arsebobda imisa, rom yoveldRiurobaSi SemoWrili d.kldiaSvilis yofa da gmirebi Stampebis msxverplni ar gamxdariyvnen. miT ufro rom, XX s-is 20-30-ian wlebSi qarTul TeatrSi ganxorcielebuli, kldiaSvilis nawarmoebebis inscenirebebi mTlianad davadebulia klasobrivi brZolis ideologiiT. politizirebuli qveynis Teatri bunebrivad iTavisebs mamxilebel paToss, "ironiiT”, satiriT Sescqeris kldiaSvilis sabralo gmirs. am fonze "aznauri” SeuZlebelia adamianur simpatiebs imsaxurebdes. analogiuri zewola kinematografzec igrZnoba. miuxedavad imisa, rom Tavis droze, k.marjaniSvilma zustad gansazRvra "darispanis gasaWiris” Janruli saxe da sakuTari naazrevis praqtikuli realizeba film "samaniSvilis dedinacvalSi” unda moexdina, rogorc Cans, TeatrSi d.kldiaSvilis vodevilizaciis tradiciis inercia kinematografzec gadmovida. TeatrSic da kinoSic aznaurTa mxilebis, klasobrivi zewolis mowmeni vxdebiT. zedapiruloba, Sinagan siRrmes moklebuli samyaro komediuri sawyisis mZlavrobis tendencias avlens.

1936 wels rusTavelis Teatrma k.patariZis reJisuriT warmoadgina Semodgomis aznaurebi”, romelSic "soloman morbelaZisa” da darispanis gasaWiris” erTgvar Serwymas axdenda. dadgmaSi mkacrad” da marjved” iyo mxilebuli usaqmuri, gaRatakebuli, bolSevikebisaTvis saZulveli klasi _ aznauroba. amitomac, speqtakls didi warmateba xvda wilad. Tumca, dro erTgvari filtria xelovnebis nawarmoebis WeSmariti faseulobis dasadgenad. daaxloebiT ori aTeuli wlis Semdeg (1958 wels) Semodgomis aznaurebi” rusTavelis scenaze kvlav aRadgines. magram winandeli aRfrTovaneba sadRac gaqra, speqtakli verc kritikam miiRo da verc mayurebelma da es bunebrivic aris. aznaurebis, rogorc klasobrivi mtrebis mxilebis tendencia nakleb Tu aaRelvebda 60-iani wlebis qarTul sazogadoebas. miT ufro, rom socialisturi sazogadoebis TviTSegneba, ukve naklebad "socialisturs” warmoadgenda. kldiaSvilis zogadsakacobrio humanizmi, misi sevdanarevi iumori, kudabzikobis niRabs amofarebuli xelebdakapiwebuli adamiani _ iyo is pirobebi, romelsac eloda mayurebeli.


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კატეგორია: N4-2009 | დაამატა: defaultNick (10.11.2009)
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