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თანამედროვე ჰორორის თავისებურებები

nana doliZe

 

თანამედროვე ჰორორის თავისებურებები

 

 yovel epoqas gaaCnia SiSis sakuTari sagani da kulturac, Sesabamisad, agrovebs mas da cdilobs umTavresi funqcia Seasrulos, daexmaros kacobriobas universaluri, sabaziso SiSis daZlevaSi, romelic qaosisa da sakuTari aRsrulebis gacnobierebas gulisxmobs.

SiSi – rogorc esTetikuri gancda

SiSis sagani _ SiSis gamomwvevi mizezi, obieqti, movlena, personaJi, garemo – realuri an fantastikuri.

SiSis teqnologia – erToblioba mxatvruli xerxebisa, romelic safuZvlad sagans edeba da gaTvlilia garkveul, esTetikur gancdaze.

yvelaze aqtiurad es samive komponenti saSinelebaTa Janris filmebSi iCens Tavs, Tumca Tavad es Janri garkveul saxecvlas ganicdida, xolo misi Semadgeneli komponentebi sxva Janrul struqturaSi gadamisamarTda.

       ra aris SiSi? – yvelaze metad tkivilisa da sakuTari sikvdilis mosalodneli saSiSroeba. sibnelisac imitom gveSinia, rom ar viciT ra SeiZleba iyos iq iseTi, rac Cvens janmrTelobas an sicocxles daemuqreba.

ratom gveSinia sikvdilis? imitom, rom ar viciT rodis da ra pirobebSi Sedgeba es aqti da ra iqneba Semdeg. yvelaze cud situaciebSic ki, sadac sasikvdilo safrTxe realuria, adamiani mainc itovebs imeds, rom yvelaferi kargad dasruldeba. Tumca dgeba momenti, rodesac es imedic qreba, masTan erTad ki SiSic.

Cvens kinosinamdvileSi saSinelebaTa Janri saerTod ar arsebobda, Tumca sabWoTa sinamdvile gacilebiT ufro saSiSi da saxifaTo iyo, vidre e.w. zombebisa da maniakebis ekranuli saxeebi. `maskulturis” popularuli Janrebi aqtiurad 80-iani wlebidan iwyeben Semosvlas da damkvidrebas da Cvenc msoflio popkulturis momxmarebelTa rigebSi vdgebiT.

saSinelebaTa Janris filmebi iseve Zvelia, rogorc Tavad kinematografi. jer kidev JorJ meliesma, pirvelma gamosaxa zebunebrivi Zalebi.

XX s-is dasawyisSi  pirveli monstri notrdamis kuziani kvazimodo iyo, 1910-20 –ian  wlebSi germaniaSi iqmneba am Janris pirveli filmebi da did gavlenas axdenen Tavad holivudis qmnilebebze. am Janris gansakuTrebuli popularoba 30-iani wlebidan iwyeba amerikuli produqciis wyalobiT. es filmebi samecniero fantastikisa da goTikuri saSinelebis erTgvar nazavs warmoadgenda.

vin arian es gmirebi, ra aris SiSis sagani da TamaSis ra wesebs gvTavazobs kinematografi?

klasikur hororSi arsebobs gansazRvruli, ukve Camoyalibebuli Janruli Stampebis nakrebi – SiSs iwvevs imqveyniuri sagnebi, lpobadi zombebis brbo, sikvdilamde gaTeTrebuli vampirebi, Ramis siCumeSi gagonili xmebi – anu sxvagvarad rom vTqvaT arsebobs klasikuri hororis gansazRvruli CarCoebi, romlebic igeba imqveyniuri samyaros ucnobadobis winaSe SiSiT – adamiani ganicdis mistikur SiSs imqveyniuris misamarTiT, romlis gacnobierebac da axsnac sakuTari logikiT ar ZaluZs.

kinematografis ganviTarebis manZilze Seiqmna garkveuli Janruli Stampebi, romlebic droTa ganmavlobaSi dauwerel wesebad iqca. am wesebiT moqmedebs reJisori garkveul momentamde. mag: zombi viciT, rom eSinia sinaTlis, nakurTxi wylis, cxovrobs kuboSi, magram saidan gaCndnen isini an ra ubrunebs maT sicocxles? jadoqroba! Sesabamisad, Savi magia. aq, ukve axal xarisxze gavdivarT, romelic aucileblad unda gamodiodes mocemulis arsebobis gamamarTlebeli variantidan, sadac logika adgils uTmobs Semoqmedis fantazias, romelic, Tavis mxriv, apelirebs iseTi kategoriiT, rogoric aris `SiSi”. realuri Tu irealuri? – orive SemTxvevaSi sruli moulodnelobis efeqti unda arsebobdes. TavisTavad ara is sagnebi da gmirebi warmoadgenen saSiSroebas, aramed is, rac maT ukan moiazreba.

sakmarisia Tu ara Janruli Stampebis gamoyeneba `TamaSis” swori warmarTvisaTvis?

am TvalsazrisiT, SiSis saganze aqtualuri SiSis teqnologiaa, romelic dramaturgiuli, stilisturi Tu teqnikuri xerxebis rTul kompleqs warmoadgens da mudmivi eqsperimentatoris rolSi gamodis, rogorc fsiqologiuri aRqmis, aseve Txrobis enis, masobrivi cnobierebis arqetipebisa da miTebis sferoSi. swored es gansazRvravs nawarmoebis Janrul identificirebas, rogorc saSinelebaTa Janris filmisa.

       SiSis daZleva xdeba misi dasaxelebiT, gasagnebiT, konkretul personaJSi an movlenaSi lokalizebiT. ra Tqma unda, qaoss ver moerevi, magram is rac mas ganasaxierebs zombi iqneba Tu vampiri, misi ganadgureba SesaZlebelia.

SiSis teqnologiis arsi SiSis sagnis lokalizebaa, misi sazRvrebis ngreva da masSi momwyvdeuli sabaziso SiSis gamoTavisufleba. mayurebelma unda dainaxos, Tundac erTi wamiT, gamoTavisuflebuli qaosis energia, raTa SeigrZnos safrTxe da saSiSroeba, mxolod am SemTxvevaSia SesaZlebeli SiSis esTetikuri gancda da mas ukavSirdeba hororis, rogorc saavtoro nawarmoebis dabadeba. mayurebeli mudmiv daZabulobaSia, am mdgomareobis mastimulirebeli ki is aris, rac mas cnobis saxiT ewodeba: safrTxe, romlis Sesaxebac personaJma jer kidev ar icis. mayurebeli xedavs ufro mets, vidre msxverpli.

hororis Seqmnis aucilebeli pirobaa `saspensi” _ SiSis esTetikuri gancdis klasikuri magaliTi, romelic miiRweva daZabulobis droSi maqsimaluri gawelvis gziT.

50-iani wlebidan SiSis teqnologia aqtiur ganviTarebas iwyebs, ris gamoc saSinelebaTa Janris filmebi goTikur mxares cildeba da samecniero fantastikaSi gadadis. 60-ian wlebSi ki es Janri fsiqologiuri trileris formas iRebs, mogvianebiT seqsualuri qveteqstebi da satanisturi Temebi Cndeba. 80-ian wlebSi `Savi komediisa” da satiris elementebi iWreba, rac nawilobriv 90-ianelTa SemoqmedebaSic iCens Tavs, rodesac SiSis sagnis xelaxali gadaiaraReba xdeba – mosalodneli apokalifsidan da klonirebidan dawyebuli, damTavrebuli Zvelmoduri mkvleli-maniakebiT. hororma TiTqos uaryo Tavisi poetika da mayurebelTan TamaSis ZiriTadi xerxi wamieri Soki gaxada, horori `eqSenSi” gadavida, saSinelebaTa filmi ki boevikebis saxesxvaobad iqca. klasikuri trileris Janric garkveul cvlilebebs ganicdis. misi mizani tradiciulad, dramatuli pauzis gawelvaa, amasTan realisturi garemos gamosaxva da naturalisturi xerxebis saSualebiT mZafri molodinis, SfoTvis, Casafrebuli safrTxis da SiSis SegrZnebebis gaCenaa. Tavis mxriv, trileris siuJeturi konstruqcia sxva JanrebSic SeiZleba iqnes gamoyenebuli (mag: deteqtivSi, gangsterul da policiur filmebSi).

60-iani wlebidan da gansakuTrebiT alfred xiCkokis SemoqmedebaSi SeimCneva am JanrSi aqcentebis garkveuli monacvleoba fizikuridan fsiqologiur gancdebze da Sesabamisad, Janric fsiqologiuri trileris saxiT gvevlineba. rogorc wesi, trileri ar efuZneba mistikas, Tumca 90-iani wlebidan SeimCneva garkveuli sinTezi, ris Sedegadac popularuli xdeba axali Janruli warmonaqmni `mistikuri trileri”. moCvenebebi, gardacvlilTa momTabare sulebi da a.S. magram am SemTxvevaSi es gmirebi ar warmoadgenen simZimis centrs, aqtiuri gamoyenebis sagans. centraluri xdeba is, rac SesaZloa sinamdvileSi Cveul movlenas warmoadgendes, xolo mistika gamoiyeneba Cveuli movlenis SesafuTad da gaTvlilia mayureblis emociaze. dRes ufro rTuldeba trilersa da saSinelebaTa Janrebs Soris mkveTri sazRvrebis dadgena, vinaidan am sxvaobas mxolod stilisturi sazRvrebi Tu ganapirobebs. mocemuli sazRvrebi sxva araferia Tu ara Janris Stampebi. SesaZloa orive SemTxvevaSi SiSis sagani identuri iyos, misi SefuTvis teqnologia ki gansxvavebuli da Janris ganmsazRvrelad ara sagani, aramed im stilisturi xerxebis erToblioba gamodis, romelic am sagnis Cvenebasa da gamosaxvas isaxavs miznad.  

       deteqtivis Janris literaturaSi arsebobs xerxebis is erToblioba, gansazRvruli meTodi, romelic Tanmimdevrulad da Seucdomlad aprogramebs mkiTxvelis emocias. konan doilis moTxrobebis tipiuri modeli istoriaa, romelic TavisTavad arafers SemaSinebels, miT ufro kriminalurs ar Seicavs, magram ucnauria, alogikuri, auxsneli. Tavad movlenebi safrTxes ar qmnian, magram gaRelveben gaugebrobiT, rom Cveul dinebaSi iWreba patara gaugebroba, rom raRac ise ar aris, rogorc unda iyos... da es gaiZulebs ifiqro saSiSroebaze, romelic ar aris personificirebuli, amdenad gauTvlelia da saSiSi. magram rogorc ki holmsi sakuTari hiperracionaluri azrovnebiT iaraRdeba xsnis saidumlos. sinamdvilec, kvlav garkveuli, gasagebi da Sesabamisad usafrTxo xdeba. am moTxrobebSi saidumlo samxilTa enaa, am enaze mosaubre da saidumlos amxsneli ki holmsi. saidumlo – gamoZieba – gamojanmrTeleba. aRniSnuli formula ara erT saSinelebaTa Janris filmSi gvxvdeba da paralelurad mkvidrdeba sxvac, sadac saidumlos gaxsna, ufro iracionaluria vidre, Tavad amocana da danaSaulis meqanizmis axsnisas kvlav gaurkvevloba isadgurebs, daZabuloba ar ixsneba, mayurebeli ki kvlav did RelvaSia auxsnelisa da uxilavis winaSe. am formulis gansakuTrebiT radikaluri variantia alan parkeris `angelozis guli”, sadac msxverpli sakuTar mkvlelobas iZiebs da adgens, rom Tavad aris mkvleli.

`gamoZieba” da `mkurnaloba” gzaa romelsac a. xiCkokis gmirebi gadian. isinic, TiTqos avaddebian raRac saidumloTi, maTi qmedebac paranoiis simptomebs emsgavseba da iwyeba samxilTa TamaSi, romelTa erToblioba saidumlos fardas xdis. mxolod avtorma icis, cru gzebis labirinTSi romelia `namdvili”, manamde ki TamaSia samxilebi samxilebis winaaRmdeg gamodian da mxolod filmis finalSi ikinZeba gaxsnili danaSaulis mTeli jaWvi. es erTgvarad saSinelebaTa Janris, deteqtivisa da fsiqologiuri trileris koqteilia.

       `maskulturis” formirebis procesSi, es formulebi gakeTilSobilebuli iyo fsiqoanaliziT da erTgvarad sabazisosac warmoadgenda. yvelaze gaxmaurebul axal film-saSinelebebSic `galia”,    `mecxre karibWe”, `wre” – adamianuri, myife gonis iracionalur saidumlosTan dapirispireba tradiciebs agrZelebs da maTac safuZvlad gamoZiebis principi da samxil-simboloebis axsna edeba.

       gansxvavebulia horori, sadac fundamenturi SiSis sagani xdeba sadizmi, nekrofilia, incesti, kanibalizmi, sadac `sxeulis saidumloebebi” SiSvldeba da rasac britanelma kritikosma leon hantma `pornografiuli realizmi” uwoda. amgvar filmebSi Txrobis ori Srea: naratiuli da saxviTi. pirveli – policiuri, an kerZo gamoZieba, meore da mTavari sadomazoxisturi rituali, sadac sxeuli gafetiSebulia da gacilebiT didi datvirTvis matarebelia vidre mkvlelis, an msxverplis saqcielis fsiqologiuri motivaciis kvleva. gansakuTrebiT es tendencia Tavs iCens evropul hororSi, maT Soris italiurSi e.w. `giallos” Janris filmebSi, romelic 70-ian wlebSi iwyebs ganviTarebas, mogvianebiT ki amerikul garemoSic inacvlebs.  `binZuri teqnologiebi” – ese moinaTla `giallosa” da `sleSeris” e.w. `maniakaluri trileris” Janris filmebi (`helouini”, `paraskevi - 13”, " eqim xiCkokis saidumlo”, `demonis niRabi”, `SeSlilobis wiTeli niSani”, `opera”, `kanibalebis jojoxeTi” da sxv.), sadac gvami mkvlelis SemoqmedebiTi fantaziis `idealuri srulyofis” nayofia, sadac auditorias gaigivebisTvis, mxolod Zunwi arCevani aqvs.

SiSis teqnologiebi iSviaTad gamoirCeva universalurobiT, rogorc wesi, isini garkveuli kulturis sazRvrebSi fuZndebian da Seucvleli saxiT gadasvla sxva niadagze SeuZlebelia. mag: evropuli horori gansxvavebulia amerikulisagan, orive erTad ki aziuri filmebisagan. mag: amerikuli popularuli sleSeri, romelic mozardebzea gaTvlili, rogorc wesi hepi–endiT sruldeba, SiSis gamomwvevi mizezebi daTrgunulia. italiuri horori gansxvavdeba Taviseburi fantasmagoriulobiT, saSinelebis esTetizaciiT. iaponurSi gamefebulia saSineleba, romelic mudmivad SenTan aris (xideo nakatis `zari~,  takaSi Simistus `wyevla~, kioSi kurosavas `pulsi~). amasTan, gansxvavebulia SiSis sagnisadmi damokidebulebac, raSic mniSvnelovan rols erebis socialur-kulturuli, religiuri msoflmxedveloba TamaSobs.

kinematografis gaCenasTan erTad Cndeba ori tendencia, romelic movlenebis da arsebebis gamosaxvis TvalsazrisiT, yvela epoqaSi da Janrul skolaSi dominirebs, xan erTi cvlis meores, xan ki orive erTdroulad Tanaarsebobs. erTi, romelic fantastikurs, daujerebels realurad mimdinares xdis, meore ki germaneli eqspresionistebis Semoqmedebidan iRebs saTaves, rogorc halucinacia, Sinagani samyaros proeqcia, rogorc cxadi sizmarSi.                                       

       kompiuterulma specefeqtebma, fantastikuri movlenebis Cvenebis TvalsazrisiT, kino realizmis atraqcions daubruna, rasac j. lukasis safrenma aparatebma da s.spilbergis dinozavrebma Cauyara safuZveli. 90-iani wlebis bolos realistebs kiberpankuri fantastika Caenacvla: `matrica”, `galia”, `ucnauri dReebi”.  1997 wels gamovida kanaduri filmi `kubi”, romelSic gansxvavebuli SiSis sagnebis mTeli speqtria warmodgenili. Caketil sivrceSi momwyvdeuli gmirebi, iseTive realurebi arian, rogorc virtualurebi da garemoc Sesabamisad myife da gardamavali, mayurebeli ki interaqtiuli, romelic gmirebis msgavsad cdilobs kubis struqturaSi garkvevas da Tavis daRwevis saidumlos gansxvavebul ganzomilebebSi moZiebas.

       50-ianelebis fantastika, rodesac mayurebeli SezRuduli iyo imiT rac ekranze xdeboda, dRevandeli mayureblisaTvis miuRebelia. kompiuterulma teqnikam srulad Secvala Tanamedrove adamianis cnobiereba. is, iseTive interaqtiurobas iTxovs kinematografisganac. Tavad iwyebs mogzaurobas ekranul sivrceSi da rasac xedavs cdilobs gadaamowmos, misTvis es ukve saSiSi aRar aris, misTvis es saintereso TamaSis nawilia, sadac yvelaferia SesaZlebeli, virtualuri sikvdilic da aRdgomac. olimpidan, damkvirveblis rolSi myofi adamiani ekranul personaJebTan erTad erTveba mimdinareSi, rac ara mxolod didi miRwevaa Tanamedrove fantastikis, aramed saSiSroebac.

rogori iqneba XXI saukunis horori, romelic  terorizmis, globalizaciis SiSiT gajerda? rodesac dRis wesrigSi dgeba dedamiwaze Seqmnili demografiuli mdgomareoba, bunebrivi resursebis SezRuduloba da adamianuri resursebis siWarbe?

monstrebze da vampirebze, maniakebze da ucxoplanetelebze SiSi teqnologiebis misamarTiT SiSze gadamisamarTda. civilizacia sakuTar sakomunikacio qselebis saSualebiT ufro SeRwevadi, gamWvirvale da moqnilia, Tanac transportabeluri. keTildReobis, Tavisuflebis, siCqaris, simdidrisa da gonierebis niRbiT erT SenobaSi moqceuli kacobrioba mizanSi iolad amosaRebi xdeba. horori kacobriobisaTvis erTgvar gzavnilad iqca, sadac adresati Tavadvea, marTvis pultad ki civilizacia iqceva. 

saSinelebaTa Janri mudmivad icvleba da SeuzRudavi SesaZleblobebi gaaCnia sxva Janrebidan formulebisa da xerxebis gadmotanisa da gaTavisebis TvalsazrisiT da rac ufro egueba mayurebeli TamaSis wesebs, miT ufro swrafad cdilobs Janri axal teqnologiaSi SeifuTos. didi xania sociologebis, fsiqologebis, kinosa da televiziis mkvlevarebis ganxilvis Temaa mayurebelze amgvari filmebis zemoqmedebis xarisxi. amasTan dakavSirebiT gansxvavebuli Teoriebic SemuSavda, Tumca vfiqrob, rom es ukve calke kvlevis sagania, romelic dRevandel qarTul sinamdvileSi gansakuTrebul aqtualobas iZens.       

                                  

კატეგორია: N3(7)-2010 | დაამატა: defaultNick (02.09.2010)
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