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მთავარი » სტატიები » N3-2009

კ.მარჯანიშვილი - ეპოქისათვის გაღებული ხარკი (ნაწილი 1)

qarTulma kinom Tavisi arsebobis pirvelive wlebSi mimarTa literaturas, risi naTeli dadasturebac eg.ninoSvilis moTxrobis "qristines” ekranizaciaa _ al.wuwunavas mier dadgmuli pirveli qarTuli mxatvruli filmi (1916 w.). munji kinematografi swored erovnul literaturaSi xedavda TviTmyofadi qarTuli kinos Seqmnis SesaZleblobas, amasTanave mayureblis daintereseba, maTTvis metnaklebad nacnobi literaturuli gmirebiT ufro iyo SesaZlebeli.

20-iani wlebis socialur-politikuri viTareba, ruseTSi oqtombris revoluciis gamarjveba da saqarTveloSi sabWoTa xelisuflebis damyareba noyier niadags iZleoda kinoekranis politizaciisaTvis, Tumca, es procesi analogiurad mimdinareobda TeatrSic da mwerlobaSic. miuxedavad imisa, rom pirvel ekranizaciebSi pirvelwyarodan mxolod mwerliseuli sqemebiRa rCeboda da rTuldeboda, saerTod raime erovnulze saubari, mainc qarTuli kinos damkvidreba-ganviTareba literaturul nawarmoebTa ekranizaciebiT xdeboda.

sul raRac eqvs weliwadSi _ 1922-28 wlebSi _ ekranizebuli iyo daniel WonqaZis "suramis cixe” (reJ. iv.perestiani), aleqsandre yazbegis "moZRvari” (reJ. vl.barski), "mamis mkvleli” (reJ. a.bek.nazarovi), "eliso” (reJ. n.Sengelaia), eg.ninoSvilis "Cveni qveynis raindi” (reJ. i.perestiani), "janyi guriaSi” (reJ. al.wuwunava), giorgi wereTlis "pirveli nabiji” (filmi "sami sicocxle” _ reJisori. i.perestiani), aqvscenti cagarelis "xanuma” (reJ. al.wuwunava), SoTa aragvispirelis "giuli” (reJ. n.Sengelaia), daviT kldiaSvilis "samaniSvilis dedinacvali’ (reJ. k.marjaniSvili), nino nakaSiZis "vin aris damnaSave” (reJ. a.wuwunava), ilia elefTeriZis "ori monadire” (reJ. al.wuwunava), xalxuri poema "arsena yaCaRi” (reJ. vl.barski).

ekranizaciebis siWarbe erTgvarad dramaturgiis krizisidanac momdinareobda, amasTan nawarmoebs sabWoTa epoqis Sesabamisad iazrebdnen, socialur Temaze aqcentireba da masSi revoluciuri propagandis CarTva Cveul saqmed iqca, ris gamoc filmebi umeteswilad primitiulobiT xasiaTdebodnen da nakleb Seesabamebodnen saekranizacio nawarmoebis ideur Sinaarss. miuxedavad am garemoebisa, dRes ukve, rodesac pirveli eqsperimentebidan mravali aTeuli weli gavida, SegviZlia vaRiaroT, rom Zveli ekranizaciebi, Tu ilustraciebi, romlebic munji periodis kinematografSi gakeTda, yvelaze saintereso nawarmoebebs warmoadgenen maT Soris, rac im xanad iqmneboda. es movlena ara marto qarTuli, aramed msoflio kinematografis istoriuli ganviTarebis erT-erTi arsebiTi niSania, miuxedavad imisa, rom filmebs mxatvruli xerxebis simwire _ gansakuTrebiT misi simunje, xSirad ilustrirebuli kadrebi, gulubryvilo saxviTi simboloebi, axlo xedebis Warbi gamoyeneba da moqmedebis garegnuli ganviTareba axasiaTebda.

socialuri melodramis gverdiT, wamyvan Janrad, qarTul kinoSi, komedia gvevlineba. maT Soris, al.wuwunavas "xanuma’, k.marjaniSvilis "samaniSvilis dedinacvali”, m.gelovanis "axalgazrdoba imarjvebs”,  "namdvili kavkasieli”, k.miqaberiZis "Cemi bebia”, m.Wiaurelis "xabarda”, g.makarovis "naxvamdis”, s.falavandiSvilis "JuJunas mziTevi”. 20-iani wlebis kinokomediebis ZiriTad mxatvrul xerxad reJisorebi satirasa da grotesks irCeven. Teatris reJisorebi al.wuwunava da k.marjaniSvili scenaze nacadi xerxebis kinematografSi gadmotanas cdiloben. SesaZloa, amitomac mimarTaven ekranizaciebs erTis mxriv, avqsenti cagarelis "xanuma” da meore mxriv, d.kldiaSvilis "samaniSvilis dedinacvali”. Teatris reJisorebis paralelurad, qarTul kinoSi Teatris msaxiobebis modinebis tendencia igrZnoba da ZiriTadi mxatvruli datvirTva, swored Teatris msaxiobze modis. maT Soris iyvnen: valerian gunia, elisabed CerqeziSvili, taso abaSiZe, vaso abaSiZe, cecilia wuwunvava, Salva RambaSiZe, akaki xorava, akaki vasaZe, sandro JorJoliani da sxvebi da sxvebi.

"xanuma” da "samaniSvilis dedinacvali” _ orive filmi realisturi kinokomediis JanrSi Ziebis Sedegia, romlis ganviTarebis Semdgom etapad kvlav d.kldiaSvilis samyarosTan ziareba, d.rondelis gasuli saukunis 30-iani wlebis erT-erTi mniSvnelovani filmi "dakarguli samoTxea”, Tvisobrivad gansxvavebuli munji periodis kinokomediebisagan da garkveulwilad sawyisi da aRmniSvneli qarTuli kinos Semdgomi bedisa.

Tu qarTul TeatrSi d.kldiaSvili "irines bednierebiT” Semovida (piesa 1901 wels. v.abaSiZem dadga) kinematografSi _ "samaniSvilis dedinacvaliT”.

"unda aRiniSnos... kldiaSvilis piesebis Sesaxeb, rom Cemi azriT, isini srulebiT ar arian sworad gagebuli Cveni damdgmelebis mier, _ werda kote marjaniSvili _ ar SeiZleba, magaliTad "darispanis gasaWiridan” anegdoturi vodevilis Seqmna, radgan es patara nawarmoebi gaJRenTilia namdvili tragizmiT, diax, me vimeoreb, rom es tragikomedia dgas sicilisa da cremlebis sazRvarze”.[i]

marjaniSvilma Tavis droze d.kldiaSvilis Semoqmedebis Janruli bunebis zusti formulireba ki moaxdina, magram miseuli interpretacia scenaze ganuxorcielebeli darCa, xolo, rac Seexeba kinematografs, rogorc Cans misTvis pirvelxarisxovani Tavad drois moTxovnebi aRmoCnda. 1925 wels statiaSi "Pro domo sua” reJisori aRniSnavs, rom Cvens kinogadaRebaSi erT-erTi pirveli rigis amocana unda gaxdes Cveni Zveli yofa-cxovrebisa da zne-Cveulebebis aRbeWdva. qreba Zveli tipi, icvleba zne-Cveulebebi, iqmneba axali yofa-cxovreba da Zvels male dro STanTqavs. axlave unda aRvbeWdoT kinofirze Cveni samSoblos yvela mxare. esoden kolorituli, esoden sxvadasxva mxareeebi”.[ii]

amdenad, didi reJisoris orientacia Zveli yofa-cxovrebis axliT Secvlis gzisken iyo mimarTuli, rac aucilebel gavlenas moaxdenda kldiaSvilis nawarmoebis ekranizebisas, sadac socialur Temebze aqcentireba pirvelxarisxovan amocanaTa rigSi Cadga.

filmisaTvis scenari d.kldiaSvilis Svilma – sergo kldiaSvilma da nikoloz Sengelaiam daweres. scenars Cvenamde ar mouRwevia da amdenad, rTuldeba masze saubari, Tumca filmSi "samaniSvilis dedinacvali” aris rigi epizodebi, romlebic swored, rom scenaristebis kalams unda ekuTvnodes.

d.kldiaSvilis "samaniSvilis dedinacvalis” ekranizebis survili, manamdec arsebobda. kerZod, i.JeliabuJski s.kldiaSvilTan erTad apirebda filmis dadgmas, magram am ukanasknelma uari ganucxada, vinaidan reJisorisaTvis ucxo iyo qarTveli mwerlis Tavisebureba.

n.Sengelaias da s.kldiaSvilis TanamSromlobis Sedegad "samaniSvilis dedinacvalis” scenari sam kviraSi daiwera da marjaniSvils SesaZlebloba mieca Sesdgomoda gadaRebebs.

"kolia TavganwirviT muSaobda, _ ixsenebs s.kldiaSvili, _ xSirad Rameebs vaTenebdiT erTi epizodis gadasawyvetad. igi arasodes ar kmayofildeba erTxel mignebuli kinematografiuli saxiT. d.kldiaSvilis nawarmoebi, xom ZiriTadad mokiskise xalxuri iumoriT gajerebul dialogebzea agebuli da yovelive amis munj ekranze gadatana did siZneleebTan iyo dakavSirebuli. nikoloz Sengelaia cdilobda epovna iseTi komediuri situaciebi da plastikuri xerxebi, romlebic adekvaturi iqnebodnen avtoriseuli pirvelwyarosi, sanam qaRaldze daweril epizods kadrebad ar dainaxavda, manamde ar wyvetda muSaobas, rodesac marjaniSvilma scenaris dasawyisi waikiTxa, Tqva _ scenari ukve maqvso”.[iii]

reJisorma mxatvrad m.Wiaureli miiwvia, xolo d.kldiaSvilis personaJebs Teatris gamocdili msaxiobebi asaxierebdnen: Salva RambaSiZe, akaki vasaZe, cecilia wuwunava, aleqsandre JorJoliani da nuca javaxiSvili.

"samaniSvilis dedinacvlis” ekranuli sicocxlis dawyebas, misi TeatrSi araerTi inscenirebis istoria uZRoda win. pirvelad moTxroba quTaisis dramatul dass warmoudgenia, Tumca arasruli saxiT, nawarmoebidan, mxolod scenari iqna gaTamaSebuli, amasTan erTad programaSi, romelsac "mwuxri” erqva, Sedioda scenebi "samSoblodan” da "Ralatidan”.

1912 wlis "saxalxo gazeTi”#763 iuwyeboda, "warmodgena metad mxiaruli aRmoCnda, Tumca mxiaruleba cremlis nalesiT iyo Sezavebuli. sazogadoebas gansakuTrebiT Zlier moewona scenebi "samaniSvilis dedinacvalidan”, sadac Cven niWier beletrists d.kldiaSvils sinamdviliT aqvs aRwerili aznauris platon samaniSvilis gasaWiri... es mSvenieri mxatvrili scenebi didis xelovnebiT unaklod dagvidga Tvalwin msaxiobma v.arabiZem. guliTad sicils sazRvari ar hqonda”.[iv]

im periodSi, rodesac filmi iqmneboda rusTavelis TeatrSi 1924 wels S.SaraSiZis ("Taguna”) inscenirebiT daidga "samaniSvilis dedinacvali” – reJisori akaki faRava.

"qarTveli msaxiobebi Zlivs Tavis qerqSi davinaxeT da gasaocari sinamdviliTac ganasaxiers Cveni cxovrebis cremlnarevi siciliT mosasmeni ambavi, namdvili tragedia. mxatvruli srulqmnilebiT erTmaneTs ejibrebodnen a.vasaZe da a.JorJoliani, S.RambaSiZe da uS.CxeiZe, pl.koriSeli da romeli erTi CamovTvalo, saRamo iyo jansaRi sicilisa, yofa-cxovrebis namdvili sarke, gasarTobi da amave dros Wkuis maswavlebeli”.[v]

Amdenad, S.RambaSiZe, a.JorJoliani, a.vasaZe filmSi monawileobis miRebamde naziarebi iyvnen kldiaSvilis gmirebs, Tumca k.marjaniSvilma maTi ampluis erTgvari gadanacvleba moaxdina. Tu, speqtaklSi S.RambaSiZe platons TamaSobda, ekranze - bekinas roli ganasaxiera, platonis roli ki a.vasaZem Seasrula. rac Seexeba s.JorJolians, romelic speqtaklis wamyvanis – mTxrobelis ampluaSi gamodioda, filmSi aristos roli xvda wilad. rolebi gadanawilda. Tumca msaxiobebisaTvis uCveulo unda yofiliyo "usityvod” TamaSi, d.kldiaSvilis sityva Jestad da mimikad unda gadaqceuliyo. amdenad, sayrdeni sakuTar TavTan erTad, reJisorSi unda epovnaT, miT ufro, rom k.marjaniSvilis damokidebuleba msaxiobis profesiisadmi maT sasargeblod iyo.

"sabolood davrwmundi, rom Tuki Teatrs sWirdeba msaxiobi _ werda k.marjaniSvili _ da ara moyvaruli, miTumetes kinos esaWiroeba msaxiobi da mxolod msaxiobi. amaze imitom vamaxvileb yuradRebas, rom xSirad Semxvedria rolze, mxolod garegnuli monacemebiT Sesaferisi adamianebis momxreni”.[vi]

Teatris cnobili reJisori ar cnobda "tipaJs” da mxolod aqtioruli profesionalizmis momxre iyo. kinematografis mTeli istoria ki, miuxedavad mravali dapirispirebisa, rodesac xan erTs, xan meores aniWebdnen upiratesobas, rogorc profesionali, aseve araprofesionali msaxiobebis mier Seqmnili saintereso mxatvruli saxeebiT aris gajerebuli. marjaniSvili Teatris reJisoris poziciebidan msjelobda da cdilobda, rom is, rac scenur xelovnebaSi izidavda _ kinematografSi daenerga. amasTanave, reJisoris ucilebel alRoze miuTiTebs is, rom mimarTavda ra kldiaSvilis nawarmoebis ekranizacias, misi orientacia mimarTuli iyo Teatris msaxiobze, vinaidan, rogorc gr.kiknaZe aRniSnavda, "samaniSvilis dedinacvali”, up. yovlisa; xasiaTebis komediaa da ara situaciuri. "usityvo” kinematografSi, reJisorisaTvis xasiaTebis Seqmnis sawindari profesionali msaxiobis ostatobas efuZneboda.

filmi samaniSvilis kar-midamos daTvalierebiT iwyeba. reJisoris yuradReba yofiT detalebze maxvildeba: RobeSi Tavgakvexebul Rorze, melanos qafian xelebze, Rorisa da ZaRlis Cxubze, mwvanilis xelidan xelSi Cadebis kadrebze, moqceul WiSkarze. moqmedeba ki pavlias gamoCeniT iwyeba, rodesac es ukanaskneli platons bekinas sabediswero ganzraxvas amcnobs colis SerTvis Taobaze. kadrSi daRonebuli da Cafiqrebuli platoni Cndeba, romlisTvisac Tavzardamcemi ambavi, jer kidev, mxolod dasawyisi unda gaxdes gasaTamaSebeli tragediisa, an SesaZlo komediisa.

platoni ornaqmarevi uSvilo qalis, berwi dedakacis ideiT aRtkinebuli da sakuTari Wkuis gamWriaxobiT anTebuli, TiTqosda mSviddeba da mosalodneli tragediis Tavidan acilebis SesaZleblobac isaxeba. amitomac, gamgzavrebamde ojaxSi kvlav, erTi SexedviT moCvenebiTi bedniereba isadgurebs. melano Zroxas wvelis, sakuTari gadawyvetilebiT moxibluli platoni saarSiyod iclis, ris Semdegac bekinas Tavis maSvlobis ambavs amcnobs, melano ki xelapyrobili mxolod RmerTis imedad aris darCenili.

keTilSobili aznauri fexiT sadedinacvlos saZieblad gzis dafarvas Takilobs, amitomac mezoblisagan gaCxinkul, gasacodavebul cxens inaTxovrebs. marTalia, mis wodebas Toxariki ufro Seefereba, magram "droni mefoben” da isic fexis xmas aris ayolili. dis ojaxSi misul platons lxins gaumarTaven. platonis ideiT atacebuli kirile ki kardakar iwyebs gamokiTxvebs berwi sadedinacvlos moZiebis mizniT. amitomac, arc im ucnob mandilosnebs erideba, mdinareSi cxvrebis banviT rom arian garTulni.

mamidis saxlSi, Seqeifianebuli kirile safiqrals gauCens, ara mxolod ojaxis wevrebs, aramed stumarsac. maT Soris aristos. mas eguleba platonisaTvis Zvirfasi kandidatura, sakuTari mamidis – elenes saxiT.

siRaribisagan gawamebul-gapartaxebuli bregaZeebi kiriles emudarebian, rom platonma umziTvobis gamo ar daiwunos moxuci qvrivi.

mamakacebis "TaTbiri” elenes motacebis ideiT dasruldeba. rZali dedamTils axazirebs ucnauri mogzaurobisaTvis. "momtaceblebi” ki samaniSvilis ojaxSi puroben, RviniT SezarxoSebulebi da gulmocemulni elenes saxls miadgebian. sapatarZlos fanjridan gadmoiyvenen _ cxenis zurgs risi vai-vaglaxiT gadakideben, pirSi EWinWs CasCrian, _ e, mand! mezoblebma da ojaxma elenes yvirilze aliaqoTi ar Seqmnano da samaniSvilebSi gaitaceben. bekina Tavmomwoned ipranWeba sakuTari qorwilis molodinSi, elenec ferumariliT cdilobs naoWebis dafarvas.

dro gadis. samaniSvilis ojaxs axali wevri emateba. elenesa da bekinas vaJiSvili, Tavzardacemuli platoni Tavis damRupvelis mosaklavad iwevs, magram filmi aq sruldeba da kadrebs bekinas, elenesa da maTi axalSeZenili vaJiSvilis kompozicia ikavebs.

ukiduresi gaWirveba, "gafSekili kuWi”, am gaWirvebasTan brZolis survili _ es aris masala, romelic gansazRvravs d.kldiaSvilis personaJebis dramasa da komedias, maT xasiaTsa da saqciels. SiSi, sasowarkveTa, imedi, imdenad mkafiodaa gamokveTili, rom kompoziciis mTavar sayrdens, mis saxeobriv sistemas qmnis, gaWirveba im fatalur, dauZlevel Zalad iqceva, romelTan brZolaSic unda gamJRavndes d.kldiaSvilis cxovrebisagan gawamebul aznaurTa xasiaTi, zneoba, qmedeba da saqcieli.

sibraluli, romelsac kldiaSvili ganicdida am arsebiTad deklasirebuli adamianebisadmi, realist mwerals sruliadac ar uSlida xels SeemCnia sasacilo mdgomareoba, romelSic cxovrebam Caayena es adamianebi. mwerali icinis maTze, vinc ebraleba, ufro zustad, is maTTan erTad icinis, wuxs, ganicdis. mas ebraleba platon samaniSvili _ "igi, swored rom Seecodeba kacs, rom TviT ambavi sasacilo ar yofiliyo”, magram mwerlis iumori dacinvis formaSi ki ar gadadis, aramed misi gmirebis arsebobis gamomJRavnebis, maTi mxatvruli gansaxovnebis erT-erT saSualebad gvevlineba. mwerlis sibraluli, romelic gamWol xazad gasdevs imedgacruebuli "maWanklis” savalalo Tavgadasavals, filmSi kargavs sakuTar ier-saxes. Sesabamisad, icvleba komikurisadmi reJisoris damokidebuleba, vinaidan 20-ian wlebSi, saqarTveloSi jer kidev mwvaved idga klasTa dapirispirebis problema da aqedan gamomdinare aramSromeli klasis daRupva istoriul kanonzomierebad iTvleboda. aq, adgili aRar rCeboda sibralulisaTvis da TanagrZnobisaTvis. filmis mxatvari m.Wiaureli ixsenebs, rom nawarmoebis ideis gamosaxatavad da gasaRrmaveblad marjaniSvilma hiperboluri forma airCiao.


 

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კატეგორია: N3-2009 | დაამატა: defaultNick (01.07.2009)
ნანახია: 2355
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